Occurrence Causes of Maize Head Smut and Control Measures 2

4 disease conditions

4.1 varieties of poor resistance, easy to disease

Resistance varies greatly among different varieties of corn, and some varieties are more resistant, while many high-yielding hybrids are less resistant. The incidence of corn hybrids is between parents, which is closely related to the degree of disease resistance of both parents. In disease-resistant breeding, parents should choose parents with strong resistance to inbred lines. At least one of their parents is resistant to disease.

4.2 There are many bacteria sources in the soil and they are easy to develop

Since the infestation source is mainly teliospores in the soil, the amount of bacteria in the soil is conducive to disease occurrence. And winter spores can survive in the soil for 2-3 years, not only easily lead to the onset of the year, but also harm the rear corn.

4.3 Seeding after seeding is slow and susceptible to disease

Since the smut strain mainly invades the seed germination and seedling stage, the seed germination and seedling growth is slow, and the disease invades for a long time and has a large chance. Generally, in spring when there is little or no rain, or when the temperature is lower, the seedlings will grow slowly after sowing. Seeding too early, too deep and poor seed quality, low viability, etc. will extend the emergence time, conducive to disease invasion.

5 prevention measures

5.1 selection of disease-resistant varieties

This is a fundamental measure to prevent head smut. At present, the resistance to head smut, which is suitable for planting in Hulan District, is strong. At the same time, it is also resistant to maize sigatoka and leaf spot. There are Fengjing 1, Jidan 261, Jidan 517 and Jiulong 12 varieties. .

5.2 Reasonable rotation

Reduce the incidence of soil bacteria. Since winter spores can survive in soil for 3 years, rotations of more than 3 years should be carried out. However, if the corn planting area is large, it cannot be carried out

Rotation of more than 3 years, rotation for 1 year can also reduce the incidence of about 50%.

5.3 Removal of diseased plants

Reduce the amount of bacteria in the soil. Remove the diseased plants before the germs are distributed, and take them out of the field to bury them. Can be found in corn seedlings, tasseling or heading, the smut strain should be promptly unplugged. When pulling out the diseased plant, the entire plant should be removed, and not only the tassel should be removed. Because of the incidence of tassels, the general ear is also affected.

5.4 timely sowing

Promotes rapid germination of seed. Do not plant too early or too late. For plots with poor soil moisture content, it is best to sow for watering at the right time. It is best to sow the water with the method of germination. The plots with good soil moisture can be sown late. At the same time, appropriate shallow broadcasting should be carried out to speed up the emergence rate of corn and reduce the chance of pathogen infestation.

5.5 Applied Chemicals

Seed coating or seed dressing can be used for control. At present, the main agents for controlling corn smut are triadimefon, Rikenxi and black spike. Can use 25% triadimefon wettable powder according to the seed weight of 0.2% ~ 0.3% of the proportion of seed dressing, with 2% of rickettsia seed weight 0.3% ~ 0.4% ratio of seed dressing, or 8.1% black spike Buster medicine Coated with a ratio of 1:50, the efficacy is very good.

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